Structural and Gendered Risk for HIV among Heterosexual Black Men in the United States

Epidemiology and Evaluation of the MEN Count Intervention

JM and TC

Primary data collection in community health clinic settings has been conducted with Black men in Boston, Massachusetts to understand social and behavioral risk factors related to HIV. This research documents the importance of structural risks for HIV including homelessness, unemployment, and history of incarceration, as well as gender risks for HIV including traditional masculinity norms and gender-based violence. This work led to development and evaluation the MEN Count (Making Employment Needs Count) intervention, which involves gender equity training, housing and employment case management, and HIV risk reduction counseling delivered by peer counselors to Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. Pilot findings document program impact on key outcomes. A two armed randomized controlled trial of MEN Count is currently being tested in Washington, DC.

*Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Selected Articles

Raj A, Reed E, Santana MC, Welles SL, Horsburgh CR, Flores SA, Silverman JG. History of incarceration and gang involvement are associated with recent sexually transmitted disease/HIV diagnosis in African American men. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2008 Jan 1; 47(1):131-4. PMID: 18156996.

Raj A, Reed E, Welles SL, Santana MC, Silverman JG. (2008). Intimate partner violence perpetration, risky sexual behavior, and STI/HIV diagnosis among heterosexual African American men. American Journal of Men’s Health. 2008 Sep; 2(3):291-5. PMID: 19477792.

Raj A, Reed E, Santana MC, Walley AY, Welles SL, Horsburgh CR, Flores SA, Silverman JG. The associations of binge alcohol use with HIV/STI risk and diagnosis among heterosexual African American men. Drug Alcohol Depend, 2009. 101(1-2), 101-106.

Reed E, Silverman JG, Welles SL, Santana MC, Missmer SA, Raj A. Associations between perceptions and involvement in neighborhood violence and intimate partner violence perpetration among urban, African American men. Journal of Community Health. 2009 Aug; 34(4):328-35. PMID: 19343487.

Reed E, Silverman JG, Ickovics JR, Gupta J, Welles SL, Santana MC, Raj A. Experiences of racial discrimination and relation to violence perpetration and gang involvement among a sample of urban African American men. Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health, 2010 Jun; 12(3):319-26. PMID: 18553221.
Heterosexual risk for HIV among Black men in the United States - a call to action against a neglected crisis in black communities. American Journal of Men’s Health. 2012 Mar; 6(3),178-81. doi: 10.1177/1557988311416496. PMCID: PMC3325332.

Bowleg L, Raj A. Shared communities, structural contexts, and HIV risk: prioritizing the HIV risk and prevention needs of black heterosexual men. American Journal of Public Health: 2012 May; 102 Suppl 2:S173-7. PMID: 22401513.

Reed E, Santana MC, Bowleg L, Welles SL, Horsburgh CR, Raj A. Experiences of Racial Discrimination and Relation to Sexual Risk for HIV among a Sample of Urban Black and African American Men. Journal of urban health: bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2012 Jun 7. PubMed PMID: 22674464.

Reed E, Santana MC, Bowleg L, Welles SL, Horsburgh CR, Raj A. Experiences of Racial Discrimination and Relation to Sexual Risk for HIV among a Sample of Urban Black and African American Men. Journal of urban health: bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2012 Jun 7. PubMed PMID: 22674464.

Reed E, Lawrence DA, Santana MC, Welles CS, Horsburgh CR, Silverman JG, Rich JA, Raj A. Adolescent Experiences of Violence and Relation to Violence Perpetration beyond Young Adulthood among an Urban Sample of Black and African American Males. Journal of urban health: bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2013. Epub 2013/05/10. PubMed PMID: 23657905.

Raj A, Dasgupta A, Goldson I, Lafontant D, Freeman E, Silverman JG. Pilot evaluation of the Making Employment Needs [MEN] Count intervention: Addressing behavioral and structural HIV risks in heterosexual Black men. AIDS care. 2013. Epub 2013/06/19. PubMed PMID: 23767788.

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Anita Raj 

Primary Investigator

Anita Raj, PhD

Director/Contact

Jennifer B. Yore
Email: jyore@ucsd.edu

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